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Women were denied the right to vote in Seneca elections until the early s. The tribe's male voters had rejected female suffrage in three consecutive referenda in the s, all rejected with widespread opposition from the Allegany Reservation, before the referendum passed. Since the late 20th century, the Seneca government is reported to be primarily under one-party rule , with the Seneca Party having control of the political process.
In , the Seneca Party was reported by The Buffalo News as having bribed people for votes and bussed voters in from out of state during elections.
Seneca, a former Seneca Party politician who defected from the party in , the ruling class has ensured that only the Seneca Party has had enough candidates to qualify for straight-ticket voting in which voters can select all of a party's candidates for office with a single ballot mark by intimidating candidates from other parties out of the race, then come Election Day, poll workers eavesdrop upon voters by timing how long it takes to cast a ballot.
In years past, the nation has used lever-action voting machines, a process that will be replaced as of by scanned paper ballots; if a poll worker heard a voter depress more than one lever, or take too long to complete their ballot, they could report this back to the Seneca Party bosses, who could then punish the voter by denying them jobs or seizing their homes.
Supporters of Porter were at odds with supporters of the John family, an old-line, politically powerful family in Seneca circles. In the years following Porter's lone term, these disputes have mostly been settled. In November , the John family led a vote to depose Porter by stripping him of most of his powers and give the title of chief executive officer to Michael "Spike" John.
He is the cousin of Maurice "Moe" John, who served as Seneca president from to , and ran unsuccessfully for Seneca President against Porter in In an October Council Session, a close friend of Kennedy said that Porter wrote the invalidation letter for Kennedy to sign. The elections were marked by a split in the Seneca Party and one of the most wide-open and bitterly contested Seneca elections in several years: Elected to the Council were Ross L.
Seneca and Sally Snow. Gates defeated candidates J. George and Timothy Waterman. Under the presidency of Robert Odawi Porter, the tribe began pursuing diversification of the Nation's businesses. It promoted founding of new Seneca-owned businesses beyond the Nation's traditional strongholds of gasoline retail and tobacco products. The tribe has developed a brand of cigarettes called Native Pride.
The tribe also owns a small chain of smoke shops and gas stations under the "Seneca One Stop" brand, but the vast majority of smoke shops on Seneca reservations are independently owned. The refusal of Seneca businesses to pay New York state excise taxes, because their businesses are operated on sovereign land, has given them a price advantage over non-Seneca, to whom the Seneca refuse to grant equal rights on their territory. The issue of such excise taxes has been a source of controversy between the tribes and the state government and non-Seneca convenience store operators in the vicinity for several decades.
For decades, the Seneca developed their land primarily for agricultural and related uses. The floodplain along the river was highly fertile. In the s, members of the tribe became increasingly politically active.
This was related to asserting sovereignty as part of a general Native American activism in this period and, specifically, to try to defeat proposals by the United States Army Corps of Engineers to take thousands of acres of reservation land as part of construction of Kinzua Dam , a flood-control project on the River.
While alternatives existed, the federal government's study concluded that these were not viable. The COE proceeded with the project: While alternatives existed alternatives that the federal government considered not only non-viable, but laughable in their lack of understanding of hydrology , the COE proceeded with the project: The tribe received a few hundred acres and relocation assistance for these families, as well as the relocation of a burial ground. They consider these to be insufficient compensation for the government's violating a treaty that guaranteed the tribe control of this reservation.
In addition, the project has since caused other flooding on their land and a through road, causing the loss of additional fertile areas. In the aftermath of the dam's completion, the Seneca people developed a different political dynamic.
The current operator, FirstEnergy of Toledo, Ohio, has a license that expires in President Porter has noted that, when the federal dam was proposed, tribal leaders were told only that it was needed for flood control, not that a hydroelectric project would be run there. Army Corps of Engineers to obtain documents relevant to adding new generation infrastructure to its dam.
This did not affect any transfers of operating licenses, which FERC noted were pending separate approvals. President Porter noted that the dam has generated hundreds of millions of dollars in profits for operators since it started in , but the Seneca have not received any of that money. It also noted that the federal government had licensed the private hydropower project to use the Allegheny Reservoir, but no operator had ever obtained property rights from the Seneca Nation for operation of the dam.
On July 22, , the Commission issued a new year license to Seneca Generation to continue operation of the Kinzua Project, effective December 1, That year, Seneca Generation sought relief from requirements by federal resource agencies related to measures to protect rare and endangered species below the dam. FERC denied a rehearing and stay requested by the company. In , the Seneca launched a public transit bus service to serve both the Cattaraugus and the western portion of the Allegany reservations; it operates one route, running along NY , NY , Old Route 17 , I and West Perimeter Road between Irving and Highbanks.
The service is open to non-Seneca along the route. Mary Jemison was the daughter of an Irish family who had settled in Pennsylvania. James Seaver, indicate that Jemison was adopted by a Seneca tribe and became assimilated. She married two Native American men in succession, and raised their children in the Seneca culture. The tribe claims authority to banish non-Seneca individuals from tribal lands; it has historically used this power in only rare circumstances, such as a December incident in which six non-natives were banished from the tribe's territories, two of whom were banned for minor traffic violations and the other four for drug possession.
Since the later 20th century, the Seneca have been increasingly active in exercising sovereignty on their reservation and enforcing their property rights. Their relations with the non-Native surrounding population have become contentious, in regard to excise tax advantages and to their property rights. In the s, the Senecas won a prolonged court battle to assume ownership of all land on their reservation, including that owned by private non-Seneca.
This was particularly contentious in Salamanca , where non-Native landownership had been tolerated for decades. State and local officials said that this is the only United States city located on Indian reservation land; under the recognized law of the time, the underlying land remained Seneca owned, but "improvements" on that land were not subject to lease and were still privately owned.
It had provided land to railroads to encourage development, which the railroad developed for workers and their families, and related businesses. This arrangement was confirmed by acts of Congress in , and When that lease expired in , the Seneca Nation demanded that the previous owners sign new leases with their nation for not only the underlying land, but also the improvements as well, or be evicted.
In a similar case in , the Seneca ordered an eviction of 80 residents of summer cottages at Snyder Beach on the Cattaraugus Reservation, a location near Sunset Bay. Operated by the Fort Brewerton Historical Society, reconstruction of a late 18th-century log block house.
Operated by the Clinton County Historical Association, exhibits about the lighthouse and local history and natural history. Book of Mormon Historic Publication Site. Historic print shop of E. Grandin , first publisher of the Book of Mormon. Buffalo Fire Historical Museum. Local history, industry, Native Americans, pioneers, ethnic heritage and culture, 19th-century shops and businesses.
Buffalo Museum of Science. Buffalo Niagara Heritage Village. Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway Station. Buffalo Transportation Pierce-Arrow Museum. Features works by Charles E. Lankes and other area artists. Bundy Museum of History and Art. Contemporary art and folk art, part of Niagara University.
Catskill Fly Fishing Center and Museum. Mill museum and country store . Cayuga Museum of History and Art. Center for Photography at Woodstock.
Champlain Valley Transportation Museum. Chemung Valley History Museum. Children's Museum of Science and Technology. Chittenango Landing Canal Boat Museum. Open seasonally, construction and repair of canal boats and the social history of the Erie Canal era. Clermont State Historic Site.
Clinton County Historical Museum. Tour includes boat ride to and from island, guided tour of Revolutionary War fortifications and room Warner House.
Restored Victorian house with Victorian rooms, dolls, clothing, dishes, tools, bibles . Corning Museum of Glass. Operated by the Madison County Historical Society, Victorian period house and local history displays.
Crandall Public Library Folklife Center. Also known as Ever Rest, studio with artwork of Jasper F. Das Haus und Der Stahl. Facebook site , early 19th-century period store operated by the Greater Milford Historical Association . Delaware and Hudson Canal Museum. John Quincy Howe House. Edward Hopper House Art Center.
Elbert Hubbard Roycroft Museum. Arts and Crafts movement style home featuring furniture and decorative items produced by the Roycroft community, located in the George and Gladys Scheidemantel House. Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Elizabeth Cady Stanton House. Emma Treadwell Thacher Nature Center. Empire State Aerosciences Museum. Empire State Railway Museum. Erie Canal Discovery Center. Facebook site , operated by the Esperance Historical Society. Finger Lakes Boating Museum.
Open by appointment only . Revolutionary era historic homestead, Colonial Dutch Barn, blacksmith shop, and 19th-century schoolhouse. Fort Montgomery State Historic Site. Reconstructed Colonial fort, important site during the American Revolutionary War, living history enactments. Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Frederic Remington Art Museum.
Frisbee House and Museum. Operated by the Delaware County Historical Association, home to 7 historic buildings including the Frisbee House.
Ganondagan State Historic Site. Genesee Country Village and Museum. Granger Homestead and Carriage Museum. Grant Cottage State Historic Site. Late 19th-century period house where President Ulysses S. Grant died in Hallwalls Contemporary Arts Center. Showcases artists of diverse backgrounds in film, video, literature, music, performance, media and visual arts. Hammond Museum and Japanese Stroll Garden. Place where Harriet Tubman spent her last years. Museum located in the Elisha Straight House; depicts life and local industry in the 19th century; center depicts the history of the area men who enlisted for the American Civil War.
Operated by the Miner Institute, farm history and demonstrations, life of founder William Miner and his railroad inventions. Johnson Museum of Art. Tours given by the Herkimer County Historical Society. Herkimer Home State Historic Site. Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum. Hessel Museum of Art. The History Center in Tompkins County. Lee White Marine Museum.
Boats, ship models, sailmakers' tools, navigational equipment, nautically themed painting, nautical artifacts; home of the World War II-era tugboat Nash. History of the Holland Land Company. Home of Franklin D.
Roosevelt National Historic Site. Operated by the New Castle Historical Society, 19th-century home of newspaper editor and later presidential candidate Horace Greeley. Howland Stone Store Museum. Hudson Highlands Nature Museum. Hudson River Maritime Museum. History of shipping, boating and industry on the Hudson River and its tributaries; operates the Rondout Light for tours. Private art collection in original home context, includes American, French and Italian art, furnishings, textiles, silver and ceramics.
Adjacent to Glimmerglass State Park , turn-of-theth-century mansion. International Boxing Hall of Fame. International Motor Racing Research Center. Formerly the Niagara Aerospace Museum. Irish American Heritage Museum. Ethnic - Irish American. Railroad and mining history, operated by the Moriah Historical Society . Part of Historic Huguenot Street , early 18th-century Dutch house. Jefferson County Historical Society Museum. John Brown Farm and Gravesite. Home and final resting place of abolitionist John Brown.
Operated by the Historical Society of Quaker Hill and Pawling, 18th-century house with period furnishings and local history exhibits. Johnson Hall State Historic Site. John William Draper House. Karpeles Manuscript Library Museum. Knox's Headquarters State Historic Site. Revolutionary War headquarters for General Henry Knox. Lake Placid Winter Olympic Museum. Lancaster District School No. Leon Historical Society Museum.
Little Red School House Museum. Changing exhibits of local history, grounds also include the Liverpool Willow Museum about the local willow weaving industry, located in the Lucius Gleason House. Locust Grove Samuel F. Longyear Museum of Anthropology. Lorenzo State Historic Site. Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Center. Memorabilia of television stars Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. Lyndhurst Jay Gould Estate. Lyon Mountain Mining and Railroad Museum.
Part of Union College , located in the Nott Memorial , changing exhibits of contemporary art, history and science. Maple Grove Poughkeepsie, New York.
Marcella Sembrich Opera Museum. Home of opera star Marcella Sembrich , includes fine and decorative arts, personal opera mementos, photographs, costumes, hosts concerts. Research collection of North American archaeological items,  part of University at Buffalo. Midth-century mansion and estate of President Martin Van Buren. Martisco Station Railway Museum. Rubenstein Museum of Science and Technology. Mount Lebanon Shaker Village. Historic Shaker village under restoration, includes walking tours and exhibits at Shaker Museum Mount Lebanon.
Museum at Bethel Woods. History and culture of Woodstock Festival. Museum of the Early American Circus. Nathaniel Hill Brick House. History and important people of the anti-slavery movement in the United States, located in the Smithfield Presbyterian Church. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. National Distance Running Hall of Fame. National Saint Kateri Tekakwitha Shrine. National Memorial Day Museum. Memorabilia and history of the birth of Memorial Day. National Museum of Dance. National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame.
National Purple Heart Hall of Honor. National Toy Hall of Fame. National Women's Hall of Fame. Motorcycles built in New York state . Neuberger Museum of Art. Part of Purchase College , focus is contemporary art. New York Museum of Transportation. New York State Capitol.
New York State Executive Mansion. New York State Military Museum. Museum about the Underground Railroad in Niagara Falls. Niagara Gorge Discovery Center. Natural and local history of Niagara Falls and the surrounding area, formerly the Schoellkopf Geological Museum. Niagara Power Visitors Center. Niagara School No2 Museum. North Creek Depot Museum.
Area railroad history, place where Theodore Roosevelt learned of the assassination of President William McKinley and of his accession to the Presidency of the United States. Northeast Classic Car Museum. Olana State Historic Site. Former estate of artist Frederic Edwin Church. Old Fort House Museum. Part of Fort Niagara State Park , restored fort dating from the 17th century, costumed interpreters.
Old Middlefield Schoolhouse Museum. Old Quaker Store Museum. History and development of Allegany State Park. Old Stone Fort Museum Complex. Includes an early 18th-century home, a s Dutch barn, an s law office, an s one-room schoolhouse, and a stone church that was attacked during the American Revolution. Omi International Arts Center.
Oneida Community Mansion House. Oneida County Historical Society. Ontario County Historical Museum. Located at two sites, the Salyer House and the DePew House , changing exhibits of local history and culture. Ossining Historical Society Museum.
Our Lady of Victory Basilica. Includes museum about founder Father Nelson Baker and the history of the basilica. Palentown School House Museum. Painted Post-Erwin Museum at the Depot. Open by appointment, located at the Columbia County Airport . Pember Museum of Natural History.