U.S. Route 31 in Michigan

Northbound entrance via Exit B; southern end of freeway; western terminus of M It is very probable that Warren area settlers or soon to be settlers came down with it or died of it. Retrieved from " https: Bear Creek and Red Run had pure water then. In the fall and winter of a severe epidemic prevailed in General Harrison's army. NOP; no campers; no trucks. But then the Americans got lucky.

The History of Warren Michigan, Warren Township and Center Line limited text summary.

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The continents are still in motion today and move a few inches a year, Warren has been positioned at the equator, at the poles and in between as it is now and has had climates that match those positions. The Earth's crust folded forming mountains and volcanoes to the north of the Lower Peninsula. The Penokean Mountain range was created in the upper peninsula of Michigan and was probably high as the present Rockies. For many millions of years our area was barren rock or covered with seas, glaciers, lakes, clay, marshland and forests.

There were several long periods of time when our area was covered by glaciers sometimes over a mile thick. Finally the area thawed out but rested under an expanded Lake St. Clair until about 10, years ago.

Rivers and lakes had pure water. Forests, prairies and damp areas covered our area which was for thousands of years, abounding in wildlife. Dangerous to man were bears, wolves, cougars, insects and worst of all other men. Most of our native animals are extinct or have been forced out of our area by urbanization.

Fossils found in the area date back from ten thousand years to hundreds of millions of years. Although there is no human record we read the history from the evidence left in the rocks themselves going back millions of years. The topsoil under our feet took thousands of years to build up. Below that is about a hundred feet of clay which are the remains of mountains dragged here by the glaciers from the Upper Peninsula.

Below that are many layers of rock formed in many ways some from millions of years of this area being covered by shallow seas and coral reefs. There are layers of salt that extend from here to New York which are the result of salt water seas drying out.

If a clock face were to represent all of prehistory and history of our area only the last fraction of a second would represent the history of mankind on this planet. Mankind's tenure on this planet has been very short in comparison to many other things. How far back does history go? The area that became Warren was first formed from molten rock and became part of the edge of the Canadian Shield about five billion years ago as the Earth cooled.

The Earth's crust later folded forming mountains and volcanoes to the north of the Lower Peninsula. Over million years ago in the Precambrian Era the area that would become Warren was part of a shallow sea in which sediments were deposited on the sea floor from the erosion of the mountains.

After the old mountains were eroded down the Killarney Mountains were formed in the Upper Peninsula. Geologists have found sedimentary rocks layered, folded and tilted, or crumpled into wavy lines, indicating that originally flat layers were pushed up into ridges and mountains.

By measuring the angle and thickness of these layers of rock strata and studying the places where still hidden strata appear as outcrops on the surface, geologists have determined that a great mountain chain, sometimes referred to as the Killarney Mountains, extended from Minnesota, across Wisconsin and Michigan, and on eastward into Canada. This mountain range towered over the landscape for millions of years until the combined forces of earthquakes, glaciers and weather eroded them away.

We are now resting on top of the ground down Killarney Mountains. In the Cambrian period over million years ago the land was uplifted many times. With each uplift the sediments were changed and folded and new igneous rocks were forced into these formations. The mountains eroded and the sediments that were carried into the shallow sea became the layer of Cambrian Sandstone located below present day Warren. In the Ordovician period over million years ago Warren remained under the ancient sea which became alternately shallower, deeper, clear and muddy which formed the layers of limestone from millions of small animal shells and dolomite and shale formed from muddy water.

Since the Michigan area was shaped like a huge saucer it has been called the Michigan Basin by geologists. During the Silurian Period over million years ago the area of Warren was covered with deep seas with clear warm waters.

Great deposits of muds and corals were formed now called the Niagara Limestones. This is about feet below Warren now.

One form of coral became the state stone the Petoskey Stone. Toward the end of this time the seas became salty as ocean water splashed into the basin and many forms of life died.

Layers of salt, and anhydrite settled in the bottom of the basin which is now down about feet below Warren. Later more limestone was formed. During the Devonian period over million years ago the climate became warm and moist. Michigan became a closed pond.

This was the age of fishes and corals which formed limestone. Later as a bay formed and vegetation sediments were deposited various shales were formed. During the Mississippian period over million years ago shales, limestone and gypsum were deposited. During the Pennsylvanian period over million years ago Warren was above the sea while the center of the state was a huge swamp with huge fern like plants which later formed coal.

During the Permian period over million years ago the climate of Warren became alternately hot and dry and mild. There were saber tooth tigers, horses and other animals including dinosaurs.

Erosion has removed all traces of these and almost everything else up to the end of the last glacial period. For a source for the above just look at any Michigan Geography book. About a million years ago the climate gradually became colder and the land was covered with snow. As it continued to grow colder the snow became deeper and changed to ice under the pressure of the snow layers above.

Glaciers 's of feet thick pushed, scraped and ground the surface of the land as they advanced. Warren was covered by thick ice for thousands of years. There were several periods of glaciation. When the glaciers melted, deposits of glacial drift now almost feet thick settled to the bottom of the lake which was formed at the end of the glacier.

The ground we are now resting on top of is the remains of the ground down Killarney Mountains. You can be historically correct when you state that Warren rests on top of mountains. Warren thawed out but rested under an expanded Lake St. As the lake level declined and the ground rose Warren at first was tundra with arctic plants, then low plants and shrubs, then gradually the following trees became dominant: Spruce, fir, pine, oak, chestnut walnut, sycamore butternut, basswood, elm, beech ash, oak, and pine.

Some of the animals that have lived in the area of Warren since the glaciers and lake retreated are: Mastodons were a special animal. What happened to them? How big were they? If a clock face were to represent all of prehistory and history of our area, only the last fraction of a second would represent the history of mankind on this planet.

Time span was ,,,, Humans arrived in Michigan about 12,, years before the present time. Archaeologists tell us that man lived in Michigan at least 14, years ago. Ziewacz 1 What is strange is that several civilizations seem to have become extinct. Scientists say that there has been as many of five extinctions of life on this planet. I mention them because they may be true and because it gives us something to think about.

Mankind after all still has the specter of nuclear winter which will follow even a modest nuclear exchange perhaps brought on by terrorists. We now have serious disasters happening such as hurricanes and droughts caused by global warming which is now accepted scientific fact. Our planet is now suffering massive global extinctions of animal and plant species caused by pollution and human activity. The Ozone layer has taken a beating leading to increase in cancers.

Peoples in the past had a strong ozone layer to protect them. They lived practically their entire lives outside They did not have or need sun screen lotion. And they had clean air to breathe unlike now when thousands of people dying as a result of pollution. Our governments are not seeing to it that enough research is being done on drugs to stop the new drug resistant bacteria. Our enemies are mainly mankind, ourselves and bacteria.

We live on a planet which is a mere speck in the vastness of a huge uninhabitable universe. It is like a big spaceship and it has no life preservers. We need to take care of our space ship as it is the only one we have. History can help us do that. History can show us where to make changes in our cultures for example to put an end to violence and needless wars thru rule of law and thru a code of conduct that must be required of every citizen of our planet-spaceship Earth.

If we cannot live together in peace the nuclear weapons and biological weapons will be unleashed and we will all die. Scientists are concerned because terrorists are increasingly able to accumulate more destructive power. Nuclear weapons and materials are being stolen particularly from the old Soviet Union and now Pakistan. History warns us that weapons usually get used. Lastly history tells us that we had better pay attention to science. Medical scientists are warning us that more medical research needs to be done to find antibiotics against super germs.

With the human population soon to be 7 billion our enemies the bacteria and viruses have a huge target population in which to develop mutations. Super germs are increasing at an unprecedented rate and we need to develop antibiotics against them. We had better pay attention to history of epidemics. We need to be observant, informed, and prepared. Nuclear catastrophe in the past in Michigan? The oldest radiocarbon dating from Michigan archaeological digs prove that man was in the area years ago.

And that may actually be a false reading. It actually be much older because a nuclear event may have happened that throws readings off. A very recent scientific discovery of a possible nuclear event not man made that happened several thousand years ago leading to the extinction of mankind and animals in Michigan and causing genetic mutations including the appearance of corn.

Theory is that radioactive rays from a super nova explosion in space hit Michigan with radiation. There have been several finds in our area such as huge Mastodon bones. Other resent scientific research shows that our planet may have had multiple mass extinctions of much of its life caused by meteor impacts. As the glaciers melted plants returned and the animals moved further North. As the animals moved North ancient man who lived by hunting followed.

At that time there was a land bridge between Asia and Alaska. It is believed that that is how man got to North America. These "Indians" are referred to by archaeologists as "Paleo-Indian People". It is believed that they were in Michigan about 12, years ago. They followed the herds of animals which they depended on for food and clothing. Later they were primitive hunters living in a boreal lake shore environment later with spruce forest cover.

They made stone tools from chert. They also made tools from bone and antlers. We know this because large spear points have been found along with other primitive tools. These people were followed by a "Late-Paleo-Indian Culture" who hunted deer, wolf, muskrat, black bear, turtles, birds, bison, and fish. Their culture adapted to life in a deciduous forest, but near lakes and rivers.

They hunted, fished and gathered wild edible plants such as berries and nuts. They brewed vitamin rich teas from leaves of junipers, hemlock trees and other plants. There is some evidence that the climate was changing and they had to adapt. They learned to grind granite stone and polish it into tools with which they could make wooden tools, bowls and dugout canoes. They used acorns, pines, beech, walnut, butternuts, hickory, and grapes. This people had contacts with others that mined copper in the Upper Peninsula, and they traded with others in what is now Mexico.

What caused their sudden mysterious disappearance is unknown. The Early Woodland period 1, to B. So by this time they had mastered the use of fire.

There is some notation in the historical literature about a primitive people who were much taller than other Indian tribes and had a different culture. They traded with other peoples as far south as Mexico. Little is known of them. The mounds were built over tombs in which as many as 20 people might be buried.

Since they did not have shovels they carried dirt to the site in containers and piled it up. These objects included such things as copper beads from the shores of Lake Superior, cups made of shell from the Gulf of Mexico and fresh-water pearls from the Mississippi River valley.

Historians now feel mounds were the work of Indian peoples. Willis F Dunbar Over mounds have been recorded in Michigan. Many other Indian peoples, buried their dead in mounds.

Sometimes they made these mounds in the outline shape of animals. Some mounds had enclosures in them which were like rooms. Others were large such one at the one at the mouth of the Clinton which had a circular enclosure that contained three acres. The Indians believed in an after life and buried with their dead things they thought they would use.

Macomb County had at least 8 Indian villages, 4 burying grounds, 8 circular enclosures, and 1 rectangular enclosure. There were also at least 28 mounds. There actually were more mounds but they were already destroyed by pot hunters and farmers. We still do not know what they were used for. See books by Hinsdale and Hubbard. The Hopewell used tobacco and carved beautiful stone pipes, often in the shapes of animals. The Late Woodland Indians A. They planted corn, squash, melons, and beans. They also were gatherers of berries and nuts, rice and other wild edibles and they hunted mainly hunted deer, elk and small mammals.

They also were good fishers sometimes using fish nets. They tapped sugar maple trees for sap and made maple sugar. The Indians that the Frenchmen found here were living in the new Stone Age. That is they had learned to use stone as tools such as hammers, axes and arrowheads. These Indians were in two large groups The Iroquois, and the Algonquians. The Warren area was part of the hunting-gathering grounds of the above peoples. Many times in the past this area was part of a no-man's land between warring groups.

Many innocent people were needlessly slaughtered over the centuries. Many also died of injuries, disease, lack of food and exposure in winter. Viola see works cited. Approximately , Indians or about ten percent of the total Indian population north of Mexico lived in the Great lakes region in the s. The Algonquians depended on gathering, fishing, hunting and limited agriculture. They lived in wigwams which were shelters made from bent saplings covered with bark or skins.

For the most part they lived further north but our area was part of their range. The Iroquois were more advanced than the Algonquians. They lived in long shelters made of young trees stood in two rows bent toward each other tied in the center then covered with bark.

Several families lived in each shelter. They often built a stockade around their villages for protection. They gathered, hunted, fished, grew corn, pumpkin and vegetables. Our area appears to have been mainly inhabited by the Hurons also known as the Wyandottes who were from the s on at war with other Iroquois especially with those to the South.

They had a village where Detroit is now. The name Huron comes from the French word for boar "hure" as the Hurons kept their black hair short and bristly like a boar's hair. They hunted deer, bear, muskrats, beaver, birds and fish. When the French arrived in the early seventeenth century, the Huron were at the height of their power.

The Huron population varies, but as many as thirty thousand people lived in about twenty-five villages. Survivors were adopted into other tribes or became refugees. The Michigan tribes were not highly organized. Leaders had no delegated power but maintained influence through acts of kindness, wisdom, generosity, and humility. Positions of leadership always were earned and could not be passed from generation to generation as a hereditary right.

Ziewacz 4 Marriage was between clans. This was basically the idea of doing something for someone, or giving them something, with the expectation that they would do something in return. Ziewacz 7 Indians felt that the land belonged to everyone.

Although there was communal property that everyone shared. Even the concept of personal property was limited. It was unsatisfactory for a person to have two of something when another had none. They all lived in the wilderness and were subject to the weather and seasons. The Indians of Michigan had roles for each member of their society. Men did hunting, fishing, trading and defending.

Women cooked, prepared clothing, did all of the camp duties and raised children. Children were taught respect and responsibility and were expected to learn everything about the culture. They were conditioned not to cry or make loud noises. The Indians had strong family ties because they were raised in an atmosphere of love and respect. Indians often did not punish their children at all. The Indians lived in a land of relative abundance yet groups often starved in the winter.

And how does one explain the ongoing tribal wars? It appears that just as the grass often appears greener on the other side of the fence the hunting grounds of other tribes looked better. Then young men seem to at times have the urge to fight. Most of the Indians were young. There was very high infant mortality. The Indians for the most part were very superstitious. They were loving within their family but extremely vicious and savage in war.

The Iroquois slaughtered the Huron Indians who had lived in southern Michigan. This forced other tribes to move further west.

Even French missionaries suffered torture and death. For example father Jean de Breboeuf a peaceful man suffered extremely horrible torture needlessly. When the priest continued to pray, his lips and tongue were cut off. He was then scalped while still living, and after his death his heart was cut out and devoured in honor of his bravery.

There were many battles fought here. Hundreds of arrowheads and other weapons were found. Not all for hunting animals. From the stories and legends of the Indians it has been discovered that there was a lot of warfare between tribes.

And this was before white man came here. Then looking at the record of how the Indians treated others and treated their captives demonstrated how cruel they could be. They often tortured captives and took slaves. Scalping was practiced before white man entered but when white men gave the Indians scalping knives and paid them to bring back scalps they excelled at this butchery.

They even dug up newly killed persons and scalped them to sell the scalps for goods and fire water. Thousands were killed and scalped including women and children.

When archaeologist dug up burial sites in Macomb County it became obvious a lot of people died in cruel warfare.

We also know that the Indians were even cruel to child captors. See the attached statement by Governor Lewis Cass. The same was true of all of the rivers and streams in our area. Lake St Clair had clear blue water. Silas Farmer p4 The well water was pure except for natural gas. The fish that were caught were wholesome. Now the fish have poison in them and the lakes and rivers are sewers. The land in Macomb County is poisoned in several places. There are places in Macomb County with deadly chemicals under where people live and children play.

One big toxic site is in East Pointe. Families are now living on these sites which are many times more toxic than safely allowable for humans to live on. Yet to show you how ignorant many present day people are they are still living there putting their children at risk because they are ignorant of current issues. They can tell you who won American idol or an oscar but news reports of the tests on their properties they have ignored.

Schofield School was built on a Detroit dump. The Detroit area had many wind and water powered mills. Some were used to pump water like in Warren and some were to grind grain. In there was a mill at Gratiot and Jefferson. Indians lived in families. Most of their daily activities centered on getting food clothing and shelter. The men hunted and or farmed and the women and children prepared the food and did most of the other tasks. In Michigan hunting gathering and fishing provided them more food than farming.

They were skilled at hunting and fishing. They knew which plants were good for food and which for medicine. Marriage was for survival not love at ages for the girls and for the men. The relatives chose the partners. The young couple then moved in with relatives. This was called extended family.

Everyone shared the daily work and raising of children. If the woman died her family would probably be expected to give her husband another unmarried daughter to replace her. Most Indian families were small because many babies died young. Indian children did not go to school they helped with the work thereby learning how things were done. To be recognized as a man the teenage boy usually had to prove that he could live along in the wilderness. Family groups were often larger than the extended familiar.

Families with a common ancestor were part of a clan. Members of the clan helped each other. A pointed stick would spear fish and the bow provided venison. The wilderness provided many wild plants for food some of which were really good to eat such as wild berries and nuts Maple sap was sweet and could be used to make maple sugar.

Tea was made from sassafras and wintergreen. The oak tree provided acorns from which flour was made. Meat was preserved by drying it. Trail snacks were made from dried foods such as pemmican which consisted of dried meats grease and berries. The main crops were corn, beans and squash.

Wild rice grows in places. There was wild honey in the woods and maple sugar from sugar maples. Clothing consisted of all natural materials such as animal skins which had been tanned. For men deerskin shirts leggings and breech cloths were most common and for woman simple aprons or skirts. Bird feathers were often used for decoration. The beads and wampum came mostly from trading. Wampum consists of beads of polished shells strung in strands, belts, or sashes and used Indians as money, ceremonial pledges, and ornaments.

Jesuit missionaries who came to live among the Indians reported to their superiors in France. The liberality and hospitality of the natives also received frequent comment. Parental love was carried so far that children were not disciplined. Among the characteristics of Indian life that shocked the Jesuits were sexual immorality, promiscuity, and lewdness.

The Indian's lack of cleanliness, his gluttony, and his barbarity also were noted and condemned by the Jesuits. On the other hand, the stoicism of the natives and their capacity for suffering pain without wincing often excited the admiration of the missionaries.

In his natural state the Indian seemed to be capable at once of high nobility and abysmal depravity. Shelters consisted of dome shaped huts made of saplings fixed into the ground bent over and tied covered with barks, wood and skins.

Willis F Dunbar 29 Others made large rectangular dwellings called long houses which several families shared. Their tools consisted of shaped stones, clubs, spears, bows, arrows, hooks, traps nets, chemicals and hand tools of bone or shell. Often the villages had tall stake fences around them called palisades for protection against enemies. And at night there was howling of the wolves outside the palisade. Thousands of settlers were cruely tortured, killed and scalped.

The use of the word savage is certainly fitting for these low lifes. We have a bunch of criminals today that fit this description.

They injure, torture and sometimes kill innocent animals and people. Some walk our streets today. Many are found in Detroit the Murder Capital. Why is this comment here? Because it is recent history. The 12 year old son of the Center Line band director was killed for his pocket change at Cobo Hall. Who but a savage would do this?

Soon after I arrived in Detroit, the great war party which had captured Ruddle's Station in Kentucky, returned from that expedition. Hearing the usual signals of success, I walked out of town and soon met the party. The squaws and young Indians had ranged themselves on the side of the road, with sticks and clubs, and were whipping the prisoners with great severity. Among these were two young girls, thirteen or fourteen years old who escaped from the party and ran for protection to me and to a naval officer.

I found the naval officer, who was with me the preceding day, already there. Those poor children had probably witnessed their parents being killed and scalped and were cruelly and severely being whipped and beaten just because they were captives.

Farmer p If one has any doubt about the reason Indians were referred to as savages this should make it very clear. Even the squaws and Indian children were participating in this totally unnecessary cruelty. We spoke to them about some apples they were eating. When they approached within gunshot of some bushes we saw three of four guns fired, and Mr McMillan fall. The Indians instantly dashed upon him and took off his scalp.

Archy, on seeing that his father was killed, turned and ran towards us with all the speed that his little legs could supply. A savage on horseback pursued him Those who could scarcely walk on account of wounded and bleeding feet were compelled to dance on the frozen ground for the amusement of the savages.

American Scalps were paraded daily thru Detroit. In scalps of American soldiers were paraded daily thru the streets of Detroit accompanied by the demoniac scalp-yells of the warriors who had taken them. Historian Wesley Arnold adds that the word savages also includes the French, British, Germans, Spanish, Dutch and Americans who participated in cruel and savage acts against peaceful men women and children back then and by others even in the 21 st century.

Truthfully, historically this is the human story, wars, killing, cruelty, on and on. This is why mankind needs a code of conduct agreed on universally and enforced universally. And it may actually happen in the lifetime of my grandchildren when intelligent machines may be given the power to enforce disarmament and prevent wars.

Of course that remains to be seen. Indians believed in spirits. Complicated ceremonies were common. They also wore ugly masks during disease curing rituals. Viola and National Geographic. The Hurons told many tales of invasions by tribes from the North such as the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatomies.

Many of them were slaughtered by the other Iroquois during the cruel Indian wars from The French explorer Champlain around and a company of Frenchmen while cultivating friendship with Algonquin tribes and the Huron Indians who lived in the vicinity of Quebec accompanied these Indians on a war party against their dreaded enemies the Iroquois. Willis F Dunbar 49 This resulted in the Iroquois fighting the French and their Indian allies severely for the next years. The Iroquois later slaughtered the Hurons and the few survivors fled Michigan.

Then around the Iroquois attacked other tribes. The French came to Detroit and built a fort in Not very long after that is when the killings accelerated. They offered the Indian things he could not get except from them. Scalping knives, tomahawks, guns, good blankets, metal pots, fire water whiskey.

This was in trade for furs including human fur scalps. As a result eventually thousands were savagely murdered. The Dutch also furnished muskets and the English furnished scalping knives, guns and bought scalps in SW Michigan.

Innocent settlers were killed as well as neutral Indians. There were also semi damp areas and marshy areas. Bear Creek and Red Run had pure water then. However it may have been named Red Run because occasions of the blood in the water resulting from children and families who lived on the banks of this creek being needlessly butchered by killers.

If all of the above time was on a regular clock face, the last fraction of the last second would be when mankind appeared in Michigan several thousand years ago. I rediscovered a mound that was built by them while working on hiking merit badge as a scout. It was pyramid shaped. The top was round. Later this site was explored and radiocarbon dating of hearth elements determined the site to be a 11,year-old Paleo-Indian settlement. American Indians spoke hundreds of different languages.

There were countless tribes over time, most of which are unknown.. This area was a hunting ground and home for thousands of years, long before our direct ancestors came over on boats from Europe.

The Indians did not have written laws. Tribes had traditions they sometimes followed but varied from them at the whim of the ruling chief or warrior. Most of the time they were kind.

Some prepared for war. They had to in order to survive against other war-like people. They practiced slavery and extreme cruelty at times including torture.

On the other hand they often lived in harmony with others and with nature. The Indians have interesting traditions. They got to know nature by living in it and using it. They got to know the local plants and what they were good for.

Some like cattails were good for many things such as food, mats, baskets, bedding, baby diapers, and fire starters. These peoples did not write or read. They kept their history as oral traditions in the form of stories told at campfires. Their dances tell stories. Most of our ancestors also were in tribes and lived like the Indians did. There are interesting books about their way of life in the Library.

You can still visit a real Indian pow-wow, see their dances and talk to real Indians. What did we learn from the Indians? First we learned from them where things were like the lakes, streams and other resources. Then we learned the use of corn, potatoes, tobacco, squash, beans, pumpkins, melons, maple sap, maple sugar, tobacco and uses for many other native plants. Corn was unknown to Europeans and was a lifesaver food crop as wheat did not do well until after the ground had been tilled several times.

We learned how to make birch bark canoes, shelters, hunting and fishing techniques and that people can live off of the land without modern conveniences. We learned that primitive man can be very intelligent very kind, or very cruel. The Indians also introduced Europeans to their sacred plant tobacco. What did the Indians learn from the White Man? They learned to use European tools, clothes and culture. They learned that the white man would take over their land by moving in, making treaties with promises then breaking those promises.

The Indians were primitive people with no concept of land ownership. Michigan belonged to everyone and each was to take from it only what they needed.

The land belonged to all and was for the use of all. Before the white man came all tribes were virtually self-reliant. Willis F Dunbar 31 The Indians were promised lands by sacred treaty then the white man would come in with armies and modern weapons and kill or remove the Indians from the land that was already by law given to the Indians.

And Europeans brought diseases such as measles, smallpox and tuberculosis to which the Indians had no resistance at all, So thousands died. Another quirk was that the Indians for the most part adopted and used European items. They liked metal tools because they were more efficient. Metal pots were superior than earthen pots. Guns were more effective for hunting and killing enemies.

Non Indian clothing and blankets were better and more comfortable. The Indians adopted white man's items and tools and within a generation seemed to forget how to be self sufficient.

By the mid s Michigan Indians were almost dependent upon Europeans trade goods. Ziewacz 8 By the s most Indian bands were more driven to get furs than to hunt or raise crops for their own families.

The introduction of whiskey to Indian culture resulted in many Indians selling personal and family possessions and neglecting getting food for themselves and their families.

That and with the white-induced diseases accounted for gradual Indian population decline to around 8, by Ziewacz 9 Of course some of this was due to warfare. The Indians learned that the white man was not looking out for there welfare rather was cheating them in every way possible.

The Indians were utterly unable to control their desire for rum, brandy, or whiskey once they had had a taste of it, and untold numbers were completely debauched by its use. The Indians became pawns in the white-man's wars. To the early pioneers the Indians were mostly deadly enemy.

Some Indians such as the Delawares were Christians and were very friendly and kind. Others like the roving bands of paid scalpers hired by the English would butcher an entire family just for the scalps. There was much needless violence practiced by the English, French, American settlers and Indians.

We must learn that there are better ways to settle disputes than brute force. Who were the first Europeans in the area? We simply have no records of the Vikings coming here although they preceded Columbus to America. Following this fur traders and adventurers explored the Michigan region. They made friends with the Indians by giving them gifts. They traveled far and wide in Michigan and may have even explored the Huron River later became the Clinton.

But they did not publish their notes if they even took any because this was secret state business. This was New France and their job was to obtain furs.

It is almost certain that Cadillac was not the first European in the area but no records have come to light with any actual names. What is important is that they respected the Indians and found a way to trade with them peacefully. They learned the languages and often married into the culture. The Indians were living in the stone age which required intensive laborious work to hunt and just live.

The Indians began acquiring metal tools, clothes, blankets and learning the ways of the Europeans. The Indians realized that a metal knife required a lot less work to use than a stone one. Soon the Indians were traded guns which were much more effective for hunting and against enemies.

The Indians also learned to beg, bargain and trade. They were told that settlers would take their lands and force them out. The Indians discovered this was true from other tribes further east who had been displaced. So who the actual first foreigners were doesn't matter. The Europeans who counted were the French who had great influence on the Indians and their culture.

The French were there to make money and to save souls. Several French missionaries were sent to Michigan. French explorers explored Michigan to an extent that when La Salle left Michigan for the last time in the French were well acquainted with most of Michigan.

Our area was abounding in wildlife. Our area was also home to some ancient animals such as the American mastodon, saber toothed cats, short legged rhinoceros, long horned bison, giant ground sloth, and an early camel all millions of years ago.

On July 24, , Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac and his command of about one hundred men, which included his nine-year-old son Antoine, landed at the foot of a thirty-foot cliff along the Detroit River. Cadillac built here Fort Pontchartrain du De Troit the straits. This later became the city of Detroit. Madame Cadillac, several months later, traveled one thousand miles by canoe to join her husband, becoming the first European woman in Michigan.

Cadillac left Detroit in The Michigan Historical library states that his settlement had become home to several thousand Native Americans, but only a handful of French Canadians. What was the area like in ? What did Cadillac find? In Cadillac wrote that there were forests of full grown trees or walnut, white oak, red oak, ash, pine, whitewood, cottonwood, straight as arrows with no knots and without branches except at the very top.

Here the cautious turkey calls and conducts her numerous brood to gather the grapes. Luxuriant grass which fatten woolly buffaloes of magnificent size. Silas Farmer also states that other early accounts tell of elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, otters, lynxes, wildcats, beavers, musk-rats, meadow larks, bobolinks, robins, and humming birds. They were so numerous that hundreds could easily be killed with a walking stick. Michigan is indeed a water wonder land with the most fresh water in the world.

French Rule The arrival of the Europeans. At first most were from France but also from other countries. They discovered a wilderness covered with huge trees, white pines over five feet in diameter at the base and feet tall, abundant wildlife such as beaver, lakes and streams with fish.

In , the legendary Jesuit missionary and explorer Fr. Jacques Marquette named this settlement Sault Ste. According to Michigan History magazine http: Tribes living in present-day Michigan included the Ojibway, the Odawa and the Potawatomi. Everyone living in an Indian village worked. When they did fight, it was because another group had moved too close to their territory.

They also fought to avenge a wrong done to one of them by someone from another village or tribe. The French gave the Indians beads, blankets, tomahawks, copper kettles, and guns. The French did everything they could to settle Canada. They they encouraged the new settlers to marry and have large families. Talon also introduced new crops such as flax and hemp and imported quality livestock.

In the Iroquois attacked the village of La Chine and massacred French villagers. The King of France sent in troops but European troops were unskilled in fighting Indians. Then the French sent voyagers and Indians to attack English settlements. In one attack against English settlers at Schenectady sixty residents perished. Ziewacz 35 These needless cruel attacks would spread later to settlers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana and further south. Cadillac had settled in in Detroit in He rented land to Frenchmen for money.

He turned the whole area into a wealth building machine for himself. He encouraged Indians to camp near the fort and trade there. During trading season as many as 5, Indians and hundreds of coureurs de bois met in Detoit. Cadillac made a small fortune from this fur trade.

Willis F Dunbar 80 Because the Jesuits were trying to Christianize the Indians they were not in favor of killing, scalping and moral debauchery caused by fire water. To celebrate an Ottawa and Potawatomi foray into the Saginaw region against Iroquois hunters, which netted thirty scalps and as many prisoners, Cadillac furnished the victorious Indians, on their return, with enough brandy so that two hundred of them staged an all-night orgy. Willis F Dunbar 80 Cadillac commanded Detroit for nine years.

He made many enemies and extracted the last penny possible from the settlers. Even his boss Count Pontchartrain reprimanded him and told him that he was too greedy. Willis F Dunbar 85 Cadillac had hoped to make a permanent settlement that would grow in population thru intermarriage with Indians. Ziewacz 37 He might have succeeded if he weren't so greedy and obnoxious which got him transferred to Mobile in In a priest was shot by an Ottawa Indian. The population of Detroit remained fairly small.

In it only has 63 permanent residents , acres in cultivation. Ziewacz 38 The French settlers were very laid back and young French men preferred the quick profits of the fur trade to hard toil of humble farmers. Ziewacz 38 The big picture of course was that the French preferred to preserve the wilderness for the fur trade rather than make big settlements. So by the French even though they claimed all of Canada only had about 50, population compared to the English holdings to the south east with a population of 1.

Since Europe was largely depleted of fur bearing animals there was a big demand for furs in Europe. The pelts that were shipped to Europe included Beaver, bear, elk, deer, martin, raccoon, mink, muskrat, opossum, lynx, wolf, and fox. Willis F Dunbar 90 The French fur traders were adventurous young men who lived among the Indians and took Indian wives.

It is estimated that there were at least of them. Others were voyageurs who were colorful characters who paddled hundreds of miles up swift streams, carrying canoes on their backs singing as they went. Willis F Dunbar 92 They traded bright-colored beads, cloth, shawls, handkerchiefs, ribbons, sleigh bells, knives, jew's harps, shot, powder, tobacco, blankets, and brandy.

They often cheated the Indians. Willis F Dunbar 92 They ate corn boiled in strong lye, the hulls removed, and the kernels washed and dried and bear or other meat and pork or fat. By nearly Indians from many tribes were visiting near the area of the Fort at Detroit trying to get the French to give them things. This meant that they were hunting in Warren. In the past the French had given lots of gifts to the Indians.

But the King of France had ordered an end to buying furs and an end to the giving of gifts. This angered the Indians and led to the murders of many French fur traders. Soon the tribes were fighting amongst themselves for territory.

In allied Indians massacred about Fox Indians. Into this wonderful land of beauty and peace, again as in countless times before, came strangers and killed the peaceful settlers. Men, women and children were needlessly massacred. Silas points out that as early as the French outfitted war excursion parties. These killed scalped, tortured any settler or anyone that they did not like.

They also took many women and children as slaves. On August 31, a settler named Martineau wandered a little to far from the fort and was scalped by four Indians.

Colonel George Washington in on his return trip from interviewing the French commandant was himself narrowly escaped being massacred by the Indians. French residents of Detroit in stated that Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle. Farmer p History records many incidents of this. In November of a party of three hundred Canadians and Indians fell upon the German settlers killed forty took one hundred and fifty captives and carried off an immense quantity of provisions and livestock.

They wanted power wealth and comfort for themselves. They did not care about our ancestors or their subjects. Back in the past there were over 10, languages. Now there are still over a thousand languages spoken around the world and English is understood by only about ten percent of all humans. Humans need to understand each other especially in emergencies. Today we still have Americans and thousands of other humans dying around the world in senseless and needless violence often set off by communication failure.

This failure is due to not being able to understand the hundreds of languages spoken in the world and due to the absurd notion that most people in the world are going to learn English. So we need an easy to learn international vocabulary. There is one which has been proved successful called Esperanto. The trunkline then runs as a divided highway northward, bypassing downtown Holland to the east and intersecting M Northwest of Holland, the highway runs as a four-lane expressway and divided highway parallel, but inland from, the Lake Michigan shoreline.

In that city, the highway follows a four-lane boulevard with a grass median. This freeway continues northward through the suburban edges of the Muskegon area and meets the western end of I near the Muskegon County Airport in Norton Shores.

Route 31 Business runs westerly and northward into downtown Muskegon. The main freeway continues through the suburban eastern edge of the city through several interchanges, including one with M Apple Avenue.

Just south of the Muskegon River , the business loop merges back into the main freeway. The freeway passes to the east of Michigan's Adventure , an amusement park, and crosses the White River near the communities of Whitehall and Montague ; a business loop curves off to the west to connect the two communities with the freeway. The landscape in this area is dominated by forest land as the trunkline crosses the Hart-Montague Trail State Park , a linear state park that follows a bike trail in the area.

Just north of that reservoir, the freeway turns to the northeast and Ludington's business spur runs off to the northwest. The concurrent highways follow a four-lane roadway to Scottville. The highway follows Cypress Street to a drawbridge over the Manistee River and then Cleveland Street on the northern side. As the trunkline rounds the northern shore of Manistee Lake, it passes the SS City of Milwaukee , [3] [4] a car ferry preserved as a museum. The highway continues on a northeasterly course running inland along Chippewa Highway to the community of Bear Lake.

The trunkline continues northward and northeasterly through Pleasanton and crosses into Benzie County. Over the county line, it follows Benzie Highway northward to an intersection with M Cadillac Highway.

The two merge and run north into Benzonia , following Michigan Avenue in town. At Interlochen Corners , it intersects M The highway then angles northeasterly north of Duck Lake and south of Silver Lake.

The two highways join and run northward through the unincorporated community. In this area, the highway passes through a cluster of retail stores and car dealerships near the Grand Traverse Mall.

North of the intersection with 14th Street, the trunkline follows Division Street into Traverse City. At that intersection, the trunkline meets the northern end of M, which is running concurrently with M along the parkway.

Grandview Parkway runs between the Boardman River and the bay. East of the park, the trunkline exits suburban Traverse City and rounds the bay to run northward along its eastern shore. Between towns, the landscape is mostly agricultural lands with mixed patches of forest.

A few miles north of the county line, the trunkline passes through Elk Rapids and crosses a channel connecting the Spencer Bay portion of Elk Lake to Lake Michigan. The highway passes through Eastport at the northern end of Torch Lake and intersects the western end of M The highway continues through Northern Michigan agricultural areas to the southeast of Charlevoix.

Once it enters the city, the trunkline intersects the northern end of M and follows a series of city streets to a drawbridge over the channel that connects Lake Charlevoix to Lake Michigan.

South of the structure it is Bridge Street, and north of the bridge it is Michigan Avenue. The highway turns eastward to exit town on Petoskey Avenue and follow the Lake Michigan shoreline. The trunkline continues past the Bay Harbor development on Charlevoix Avenue into the city of Petoskey.

From there, it intersects the southern end of M and passes through a pair of small towns, Conway and Oden , that border inland lakes like Round Lake and various bays of Crooked Lake. There the highway intersects the western end of M and runs parallel to the Crooked River, part of the Inland Waterway. The highway runs past the Pellston Regional Airport and continues due north to Levering. The first major overland transportation corridors in the future state of Michigan were the Indian trails.

Their auto trail was marked by a series of concrete markers eight feet 2. The highway was also a part of the Western Mainline of the Dixie Highway in Michigan, another auto trail that was built starting in From the state line north through Niles to St.

Joseph, it carried the original M designation and from there northward it was the original M A section in the Benton Harbor—St. On November 1, , the Mackinac Bridge opened to traffic. By the end of the decade, another freeway segment opened along the Muskegon Bypass as well.

Ford Freeway" in July The first section of the St. In , it was expanded to the south side of Ludington. Starting in , Traverse City -area residents and tourists requested a freeway bypass the city. These residents decided to not build the highway. The first section northward to Niles was approved in , and the remainder of the route was approved in Joseph Valley Parkway extension east of Benton Harbor, due to environmental, economic, and historical site issues.

One of the environmental concerns that was studied relates to the habitat of an endangered species, the Mitchell's satyr butterfly, which has its habitat in the area of the proposed freeway. A revised environmental impact study to account for the butterfly's habitat in the northern area of the freeway was approved in The study recommended using a version of the alternate connection to avoid the Blue Creek Fen, both to save money and decrease impact to the Mitchell's satyr.

Joseph Valley Parkway opening to that point, westward to I Joseph Valley Parkway name has already been applied to this unbuilt section. The department has listed funding for only the first two of these three phases, and construction is anticipated to start in The department had also completed a reconfiguration of the intersection between M and Cleveland Drive and widening the bridge that carries M over I The expected date of completion for M was set for sometime in pending funding availability.

MDOT planned to build 1. The concept did not last a year; the American entry into World War I and a lack of focus on a single route consigned the idea into obscurity. A group of area residents initiated an effort to have the former West Michigan Pike designated what is now called a Pure Michigan Byway.

The designation would prioritize the area for historic preservation grants. In , the group was in the process of securing resolutions from municipalities along the highway in support of the designation. MDOT maintains a listing of the historic bridges in the state; along US 31, the department has listed four structures.

Built from through , it is the fifth bridge at the location. It is a double-leaf bascule bridge. It carries Oceana Drive along a former routing of US From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the section of highway in Michigan. For the entire length of highway, see U. The Roads that Built America. Michigan Department of Transportation.

Retrieved August 9, State Transportation Map Map. Retrieved November 13, Archived from the original PDF on September 21, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved July 1, The Road Atlas Walmart ed. Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review.

University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations. A Drive Down Memory Lane: Highway 31 Kindle, 2nd ed. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved February 28, Michigan Roads and Forests.

State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan. The Grand Rapids Press. State of Michigan Map. Michigan State Highway Department.

Retrieved December 18, — via Archives of Michigan. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 7, — via Wikimedia Commons. Official Highway Service Map Map.

Gousha January 1, Gousha July 1, Official Michigan Highway Map Map. Official Highway Map of Michigan Map.

Official Highway Map Map. Retrieved January 19, — via Archives of Michigan. Michigan Official Highway Map Map. Retrieved April 15, — via Archives of Michigan.

Retrieved August 12, — via Archives of Michigan.