List of judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa delivered in 2001
The building was unoccupied until , when it was used without being officially opened, due to the country's being engulfed in the Anglo-Boer war. In , Newcastle became the largest producer of chrome chemicals in Africa with the completion of a chrome-chemical plant, a joint-venture project between Karbochem and German manufacturing giant Bayer. Their respective interests in these proceedings are peripheral as will become apparent in due course. From onward, increasing numbers of Indians, mainly Tamils,  were brought in by the British mainly to work in the sugar plantations on the coast. For present purposes I assume that the National Board has established a prima facie right to the main relief it sought. In the present context, it requires of each of the organs of state to re-evaluate the need or otherwise for a single CEMS, to consider alternative possibilities and compromises and to do so with regard to the expert advice the other organs of state have obtained.
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Mchunu congratulated the new appointees and thanked them for accepting positions on the board. He said "I would like to firstly congratulate you all collectively and also to thank you for having accepted to take your places as members of the KwaZulu Natal Gaming and Betting Board. Members of the public have confidence in you and you cannot disappoint them". The nine-member board was appointed after a long process that involved contributions from the public and the provincial executive committee of the province.
The new and current board has come after tumultuous history from the previous board. According to Mchunu that the provincial gambling board was one of the most worrying issues that he had to deal with since assuming office in He said that even though boards must have sustainability, continuity and institutional memory, the history of this board made it hard to carry on as normal.
The premier said that the board should act as an independent authority, responsible only to the Act. KwaZulu remained independent until It has three different geographic areas. The lowland region along the Indian Ocean coast is extremely narrow in the south, widening in the northern part of the province, while the central Natal Midlands consists of an undulating hilly plateau rising toward the west.
The area's largest river, the Tugela , flows west to east across the center of the province. The coastal regions typically have subtropical thickets and deeper ravines; steep slopes host some Afromontane Forest.
The midlands have moist grasslands and isolated pockets of Afromontane Forest. The north has a primarily moist savanna habitat, whilst the Drakensberg region hosts mostly alpine grassland. The province contains rich areas of biodiversity of a range of flora and fauna. The iSimangaliso Wetland Park, along with uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park and Ndumo, are wetlands of international importance for migratory species, and are designated as Ramsar sites.
South Africa signed the Ramsar Convention to try to conserve and protect important wetlands because of their importance to habitats and numerous species. The former Eastern Cape enclave of the town of Umzimkulu and its hinterland have been incorporated into KwaZulu-Natal following the 12th amendment of the Constitution of South Africa.
The amendment also made other changes to the southern border of the province. KwaZulu-Natal has a varied yet verdant climate thanks to diverse, complex topography. Generally, the coast is subtropical with inland regions becoming progressively colder. Temperature drops towards the hinterland, with Pietermaritzburg being similar in the summer, but much cooler in the winter.
The Drakensberg can experience heavy winter snow, with light snow occasionally experienced on the highest peaks in summer. The Zululand north coast has the warmest climate and highest humidity, supporting many sugar cane farms around Pongola. The KwaZulu-Natal Province is divided into one metropolitan municipality and ten district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 48 local municipalities.
The local seat of each district municipality is given in parentheses:. This amounts to about three million hectares, occupied by over 4 million people. The Zulu king is the chairman of the Trust. The coastline is dotted with small towns, many of which serve as seasonal recreational hubs.
The climate of the coastal areas is humid and subtropical, comparable to southern Florida in the United States, but not quite as hot and rainy in the summer. As one moves further north up the coast towards the border of Mozambique, the climate becomes almost purely tropical.
Beaches of world-class quality are to be found along virtually every part of South Africa's eastern seaboard, with some of the least-developed gems found in the far southern and far northern ends of the province. Some visitors come for the annual late autumn or early winter phenomenon on the KwaZulu-Natal coast of the " sardine run ". Referred to as "the greatest shoal on earth", the sardine run occurs when millions of sardines migrate from their spawning grounds south of the southern tip of Africa northward along the Eastern Cape coastline toward KwaZulu-Natal.
They follow a route close inshore, often resulting in many fish washing up on beaches. The huge shoal of tiny fish can stretch for many kilometres; it is preyed upon by thousands of predators, including game fish , sharks , dolphins and seabirds. Usually the shoals break up and the fish disappear into deeper water around Durban. Scientists have been unable to answer many questions surrounding this exceptional seasonal event.
The interior of the province consists largely of rolling hills from the Valley of a Thousand Hills to the Midlands. Their beauty has inspired literature. Alan Paton , in the novel Cry, the Beloved Country , wrote:. There is a lovely road that runs from Ixopo into the hills. These hills are grass-covered and rolling, and they are lovely beyond any singing of it. The road climbs seven miles 11 km into them, to Carisbrooke; and from there, if there is no mist, you look down on one of the fairest valleys of Africa.
About you there is grass and bracken and you may hear the forlorn crying of the titihoya , one of the birds of the veld. Below you is the valley of the Umzimkulu , on its journey from the Drakensberg to the sea; and beyond and behind the river, great hill after great hill; and beyond and behind them, the mountains of Ingeli and Griqualand East.
Natal is the Portuguese word for Christmas which gave rise to the European name for the region. The area was occupied centuries ago by the Nguni branch of the Bantu. The first European settlers, mostly British, established Port Natal , a trading post.
They made almost no attempt to develop the interior, whose inhabitants had been decimated by the Zulu king, Shaka. The Afrikaner Voortrekkers entered the area via the Drakensberg passes in Thus, the territory was once part of a short-lived Boer republic between and until its annexation by Britain.
Many Afrikaner inhabitants left for the interior after the annexation and were replaced by immigrants, mainly from Britain. From onward, increasing numbers of Indians, mainly Tamils,  were brought in by the British mainly to work in the sugar plantations on the coast. The lands north of the Buffalo River were added in They failed to build on their initial advantage and for three months the line between the opposing forces followed the course of the Tugela River.
When the homeland of KwaZulu, which means "Place of the Zulu" was re-incorporated into the Natal province after the end of apartheid in , the province of Natal, which had existed between and , was renamed KwaZulu-Natal. The province is home to the Zulu monarchy; the majority population and language of the province is Zulu. It is the only province in South Africa that has the name of its dominant ethnic group as part of its name.
The lion and wildebeest supporters are symbols of, respectively, KwaZulu and Natal, the regions joined to create KwaZulu-Natal. The zig-zag stripe represents the Drakensberg and the star the Zulu myth that the Zulu people are "star people" "people of heaven".
The strelitzia flower on the shield symbolizes the province's beauty, while the assegai and knobkierrie behind the shield represent protection and peace.
The base of the crown element is a type of headdress traditionally worn by Zulu elders that represents wisdom and maturity; the element itself is a Zulu-style grass hut.
The motto is Masisukume Sakhe , Zulu for "Let us stand up and build". KwaZulu-Natal's provincial government sits in Pietermaritzburg.
The foundation stone of the new legislative building was laid on 21 June , to commemorate Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee. The building was completed two years later. This was the former site of St Mary's Church, built in the s. The congregation built a new church in at the corner of Burger Street and Commercial Road. The old building was demolished in to provide space for the legislative complex.
When governance was granted to Natal in , the new Legislative Assembly took over the chamber used by the Legislative Council since Further extensions to the parliamentary building were made. The building was unoccupied until , when it was used without being officially opened, due to the country's being engulfed in the Anglo-Boer war.
The war forced the Legislative Assembly to move the venue of its sittings, as its chamber was used as a military hospital. The Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council buildings have both been protected as provincial landmarks.
They formed a colonial Parliament of two houses: The Council was disbanded in The Provincial Legislature consists of 80 members. The African National Congress ANC hold power in the provincial legislature, winning the province with a convincing overall majority in South Africa's elections.
After the election, the Democratic Alliance replaced the Inkatha Freedom Party as the official opposition in the province. Although not holding any direct political power, the Zulu king is provided a stipend by the government. He holds considerable influence among the more traditionalist Zulu people in the province. To date, [ when? This was formerly a way of creating connections among the various peoples. The current King practices the ceremony, called the " Reed Dance ", but has not chosen new wives recently.