Fourteenth Greater Sin: Gambling
For example, he elevated the bread and the wine called the "fruit of the vine" during the Last Supper, at the very least symbolizing his body and blood, which he sacrificed on the cross for the sins of the world Matt. He too misreads human nature. But if you turn back, then know that only a clear deliverance of the message is incumbent on your apostle. Islam and the West. The two major aspects of a hadith are the text of the report the matn , which contains the actual narrative, and the chain of narrators the isnad , which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted.
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The one looking to this is in need of distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable. Regarding jurisprudence, then the jurist is in need of citing as an evidence the acceptable to the exception of the later, something only possible utilizing the science of hadith.
According to Bernard Lewis, "in the early Islamic centuries there could be no better way of promoting a cause, an opinion, or a faction than to cite an appropriate action or utterance of the Prophet. This is achieved by analyzing the text of the report, the scale of the report's transmission, the routes through which the report was transmitted, and the individual narrators involved in its transmission. On the basis of these criteria, various classifications were devised for hadith.
Other classifications used also include: Classifications of hadith may also be based upon the scale of transmission. These reports are considered the most authoritative as they pass through so many different routes that collusion between all of the transmitters becomes an impossibility.
Reports not meeting this standard are known as aahad , and are of several different types. This includes analyzing their date and place of birth; familial connections; teachers and students; religiosity; moral behaviour; literary output; their travels; as well as their date of death.
Also determined is whether the individual was actually able to transmit the report, which is deduced from their contemporaneity and geographical proximity with the other transmitters in the chain.
The major points of intra-Muslim criticism of the Hadith literature is based in questions regarding its authenticity. With regard to clarity, Imam Ali al-Ridha has narrated that "In our Hadith there are Mutashabih unclear ones like those in al-Quran as well as Muhkam clear ones like those of al-Quran. You must refer the unclear ones to the clear ones. Muslim scholars have a long history of questioning the Hadith literature throughout Islamic history.
Western academics also became active in the field later on. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Hadith Hadith studies. Terminology Types categories Biographical evaluation Musannaf Isra'iliyyat. Shama'il Muhammadiyah Shamaail Tirmidhi.
Man La Yahduruhu Al-Faqih. Jami Sahih Tartib al-Musnad. Mosque of the prophet Possessions Relics. This assertion re Muslim historians citing Uthman on hadith needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 22 December Islam and the West. Retrieved 28 March Mabadi Tadabbur-i-Hadith translated as: Retrieved 2 June Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World.
Introduction to Hadith 2nd ed. This last phrase is quoted by al-Qasimi in Qawaid al-Tahdith , p. Fath al-Bari in Arabic. Retrieved 16 April Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. The Quran and Its Message. Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 20 June Kitab Ikhtilaf Malid wal-Shafi'i". Commentary on Malik's Muwatta', 4 vols. Why Hadith is Important".
Brown, Misquoting Muhammad , Kitab al-Kafi eBook ed. The Islamic Seminary Inc. The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Islam 2nd Revised ed. Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought. Retrieved 10 May Ignaz Goldziher, The Zahiris: Their Doctrine and their History , trans and ed.
Wolfgang Behn Leiden, , 20 ff Mu'tazila - use of reason in Islamic theology. Retrieved 8 September He probably completed this work a few decades before his death: There is a universal agreement among the Mujtahids that articles normally used in gambling should not be played with, even if one is not gambling. The tradition mentioned previously which states that one who touches chess is like one who smears his hand in pork; continues,. It is only an act that Shaitan instigates you to do.
Chess and cards should not be indulged in even when played only for intellectual stimulation games with no intent to gamble.
These games have an inherent power to obsess the player till he becomes oblivious of his responsibilities towards his family and even his livelihood. Such all-consuming activities lead to the disruption of an otherwise happy family life. Shaitan also will not lose the opportunity to incite the players to play for stakes.
Very soon, the game started as an intellectual exercise will slip into a game for making money. The only effective way to eradicate gambling from society is to stay clear of such games as commanded by our Imam a.
It is obligatory to destroy them. Do not devour your property among yourselves falsely? The practice of Nahy anil Munkar makes it obligatory on us to leave the place where people are gambling. It is recommended mustahab that if perchance our eyes fall upon an article of gambling, we should remember Imam Husain a.
After the meal, Yazid l. A chessboard was spread out and the accursed Yazid sat down to play chess. During the game, he ridiculed Imam Husain a. Whenever he won a game, he used to take hold of the barley wine and drink Three goblets. Then he used to pour the remaining wine in the salver upon the head of Imam Husain a. One who sees barley wine or chess must remember Imam Husain a.
If a Shia does this, Allah the Almighty will forgive all his sins even if they are more numerous than the stars. Archery and horse racing are exceptions to the extent that it is permissible only for those who participate in the sports to bet amongst themselves. For example, yatching, weightlifting, lancing etc. He must return it to his opponent. It is undoubtedly permissible for participants and not for spectators in horse racing and archery to bet among themselves.
The winner can rightfully own the amount he wins. Islam has permitted these two competitions because such sports contribute to the overall capabilities of a warrior, and a Muslim well versed in these is better equipped to challenge his adversaries. The details could be pursued in the books of legal rulings. In another tradition, the Holy Prophet S has prohibited all types of competitions except these Three.
Issuing the judgement Imam a. But if you have only laid a bet and have not commenced eating, then you have to pay a penalty. This penalty is equal for all the participants and has no connection with who ate more or less. However, he refrained the loser to bear any loss of money etc. The one who ate the least and lost the bet will not incur any loss because the bet is invalid. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir a. Even if it consist of a cashew-nut or wager dung. To employ any article for the purpose of taking a bet is gambling even if such an article is not generally associated with gambling.
There is some difference of opinion among the Mujtahids regarding the games of competition that neither use tools of gambling nor are played with stakes. This is the unanimous verdict of the scholars. Oaths and Vows, vol. He must repent in this way:. According to Imam Abu Hanifa [a major jurist; see next section], it is imperative to expiate his sin as laid down in the Shariah by feeding ten poor men, or clothing ten deserving persons or observing three fasts.
The other jurists are of the view that Sadaqa is enough, no matter what its amount or measure is. To sum up this section, Muhammad and his companions in the hadith punished wine drinkers with forty to eighty lashes. At first, hands, shoes, or wound-up clothes were used, but they were quickly replaced with a lash—and perhaps a lash was used at the same time that hands, shoes or clothes were, but lashes or canes seem to be the implement of choice today.
Next, Muhammad even decreed that if the drunkard violated the Quran four times or more, he should be killed. Fortunately for wine drinkers in those days and all of them today , this decree was repealed.
Finally, the hadith does not detail how to penalize gambling. It says that the gambler should expiate his sins by giving to charity, for merely suggesting that he and his friends should play games of chance, quite apart from actually playing them. How should he be punished if he actually commits this sin? Consequently, the legal rulings will be sparse and unclear, as well. For a discussion of Classical Sharia Law and then the Bible, go to the longer original post: Muhammad, the Quran, and Prohibition: Many devout Christians, especially in the American South, believe that drinking and gambling are sins, regardless of the context or the amount.
They would have no problem with the Quran in Sura 5: This is their prerogative. However, no Christian can claim Biblical support for whipping and beating drinkers and gamblers. Instead, these Christians seek to help the needy. This is the core problem with the example of Muhammad in the hadith and often in the Quran itself.
He and his deity seem always to turn to physical punishments to transform society, like chopping off a hand of a male and female thief or cutting off a hand and a foot of a highway robber or flogging someone who even swallows a small amount of alcohol or flogging fornicators and stoning adulterers.
It is difficult to find passages that demonstrate Muhammad healing and restoring the sinner without chopping off his hand or bruising his back. This is not the case with Jesus. In his life he showed his followers how to help the sinner from the inside out. He sends the Spirit into his life to help and restore him. He also provides many Biblical principles in his inspired Word to show his followers how to help someone, not drag him before a court to see him flogged.
But does this mean that society should have no laws governing inebriated persons in public? Laws should punish, for example, drunk drivers—but not with flogging. Whatever the case, Jesus sends his followers into prisons and elsewhere to help them Matthew This post updates the earlier one, offsite and written by yours truly and titled Muhammad, the Quran, and Prohibition: Why sharia is incompatible with American values. Introduction to a series on Islamic sharia law. You are commenting using your WordPress.
You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. See his commentary here: First Prohibition of sorts: Hence, these two verses came down from Allah: