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Try to get on long stretches of road taking a left from the starting point is a good way to do this and always drive on the wrong side of the street. After a short cutscene, you'll find yourself in an all-out battle with the Forelli family. On Opening Day, December 1, , of Gulfstream Park's meet, the track is hosting the 14th running of racing's Claiming Crown. I'm sure they'll be able to help x. National Geographic Traveler edited once in decade features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine. After the capitulation of Italy in September , Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late and entire
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Under Nicholas I , the principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II. The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role in the mutually amicable relations.
However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party , who supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia, and those of the True People's Party , who were monarchist. During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the Battle of Grahovac. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina, then part of Austria-Hungary.
This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire at Treaty of Berlin in From to October , Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary.
During the occupation, King Nicholas fled the country and a government-in-exile was set up in Bordeaux. In a further restructuring in , it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River.
Zeta Banovina was one of nine banovinas which formed the kingdom; it consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia. Italian forces occupied Montenegro and established it as a puppet Kingdom of Montenegro. In May, the Montenegrin branch of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia started preparations for an uprising planned for mid-July. The Communist Party and its Youth League organised 6, of its members into detachments prepared for guerrilla warfare.
The first armed uprising in Nazi -occupied Europe happened on 13 July in Montenegro. Unexpectedly, the uprising took hold, and by 20 July, 32, men and women had joined the fight.
In a month of fighting, the Italian army suffered 5, dead, wounded, and captured. The uprising lasted until mid-August, when it was suppressed by a counter-offensive of 67, Italian troops brought in from Albania.
Faced with new and overwhelming Italian forces, many of the fighters laid down their arms and returned home. Nevertheless, intense guerrilla fighting lasted until December. Fighters who remained under arms fractured into two groups. War broke out between Partisans and Chetniks during the first half of Fighting between Partisans and Chetniks continued through the war.
Chetniks with Italian backing controlled most of the country from mid to April Montenegrin Chetniks received the status of "anti-communist militia" and received weapons, ammunition, food rations, and money from Italy. Most of them were moved to Mostar , where they fought in the Battle of Neretva against the Partisans, but were dealt a heavy defeat. During the German operation Schwartz against the Partisans in May and June , Germans disarmed large number of Chetniks without fighting, as they feared they would turn against them in case of an Allied invasion of the Balkans.
After the capitulation of Italy in September , Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces, and fierce fighting continued during late and entire Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans in December Montenegro, like the rest of Yugoslavia, was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began, and the University of Montenegro was established.
Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in The referendum was boycotted by the Muslim, Albanian, and Catholic minorities, as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins. The opponents claimed that the poll was organized under anti- democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote.
No impartial report on the fairness of the referendum was made, as it was unmonitored, unlike in when European Union observers were present. During the — Bosnian War and Croatian War , Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik , Croatia. Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the euro , although not part of the Eurozone currency union.
Subsequent governments pursued pro-independence policies, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in , although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected. In , Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement for continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
This resulted in the Belgrade Agreement, which saw the country's transformation into a more decentralised state union named Serbia and Montenegro in The Belgrade Agreement also contained a provision delaying any future referendum on the independence of Montenegro for at least three years. The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by a referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May A total of , votes were cast, representing Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence.
The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation. On 3 June , the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro,  formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration. In June , Montenegro formally became a member of NATO , though "Montenegro remains deeply divided over joining NATO",  an event that triggered a promise of retaliatory actions on the part of Russia's government.
Since , Montenegro is in negotiations with the EU. The view to acceding by  was revised to Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, [a] and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only 1. The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2, metres 6, feet in elevation.
Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period. Zla Kolata , highest mountain peak of Montenegro, near the border with Albania. Bobotov Kuk on the Durmitor mountain is the symbol of Montenegro. The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity.
The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0. The Eurasian brown bear , a protected species in Montenegro. Pinus heldreichii , Bijela gora. The common bottlenose dolphin is often seen in the Bay of Kotor. The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a " civic , democratic , ecological state of social justice , based on the reign of Law. The President of Montenegro Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore is the head of state , elected for a period of five years through direct elections.
The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament , proposes candidates for Prime Minister , president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament.
The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council.
The official residence of the President is in Cetinje. The Government of Montenegro Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister , and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.
The Parliament of Montenegro Montenegrin: It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution.
Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6, voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the parliamentary election.
After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June , following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state.
The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation.
These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders. Integration into the European Union is Montenegro's strategic goal. This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO , which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals.
Although it only borders Albania , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Kosovo , and Serbia , Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece.
An official flag of Montenegro , based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I , was adopted on 12 July by the Montenegrin legislature. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion.
The national day of 13 July marks the date in when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world  and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July in Montenegro. In , the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, " Oh, Bright Dawn of May ", as the national anthem. The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army , the Montenegrin Navy , and the Montenegrin Air Force , along with special forces.
Conscription was abolished in The military currently maintains a force of 1, active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro ; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force. Montenegro was a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program and then became an official candidate for full membership in the alliance. Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November , which was granted in December Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.
This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality , listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".
The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. GDP grew at However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment , the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment. In , the service sector made up The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards.
Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination. Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade — Bar railway , which provides international connection towards Serbia.
Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.
The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in , the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II , with reconstruction beginning in Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.
Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years. With a total of 1. National Geographic Traveler edited once in decade features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine.
Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of " to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world falling just behind China ". It was not until the s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority.
It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. Perast in Bay of Kotor. Sveti Stefan island in Budva. Porto Montenegro , luxury yacht marina.
According to the census, Montenegro has , citizens. If the methodology used up to had been adopted in the census, Montenegro would officially have recorded , citizens. The results of the census show that Montenegro has , citizens. Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority.
The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation. Ethnic composition according to the official data: The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin.
Also, Serbian , Bosnian , Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. All of these languages, except Albanian, are mutually intelligible. According to the census, most citizens declared Serbian as their mother tongue. Montenegrin is the plurality mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age, although by a very narrow margin — According to the Census the following languages are spoken in the country: Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian population.
The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognized.
Despite tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War , Montenegro remained fairly stable, mainly due its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity. One third of Albanians are Catholics 8, in the census while the two other thirds 22, are mainly Sunni Muslims ; in a protocol passed that recognizes Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah Friday -prayer.
Religious determination according to the census: Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools Montenegrin: The students may continue their secondary education Montenegrin: Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 7 and 15 when children attend the "eight-year school".
Various types of elementary education are available to all who qualify, but the vocational and technical schools gymnasiums , where the students follow four-year course which will take them up to the university entrance, are the most popular. At the secondary level there are a number of art schools, apprentice schools and teacher training schools.
Those who have attended the technical schools may pursue their education further at one of two-year post-secondary schools, created in response to the needs of industry and the social services. Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades:. Post-graduate education post-diplomske studije is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees , PhD and specialization education.
The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman Turk , Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice have been the most important in recent centuries.
Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre- Romanesque , Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor  Cattaro under the Venetians , the basilica of St. Grab a vehicle make sure it has seating for four and make the long schlep out there. Park on the red marker once you arrive and a cut scene will play.
Once you have these two, drive them to a snake farm, represented by the yellow blip. When you get there, the proprietors of the farm take umbrage with your new buddies. When it concludes, kill them all quickly.
Make sure you crouch and cycle through the targets quickly. Speed back to the new yellow marker on the map. If you didn't kill all the hicks right away, they will chase you all the way back to LV. If they aren't dead, make them dead in front of the new casino--Caligula's Palace.
Park on the red and watch the cut scene that unfolds You'll be introduced to Rosie Ken Rosenberg , your brand new inside contact. After it does, you'll end the mission, and you'll get a quick call from Woozie.
A new icon will also appear inside this casino Go inside the Caligula casino and follow the white icon to Ken Rosenberg's office. After a lengthy cut scene in which Rosenberg explains his troubles with the mob, you'll get another mission involving the Sindacco's--except that this one is a mission of protection.
The mission is to drive to the hospital, pick up the leader of the family from the hospital and move him to a new. But someone's beaten you to it! The old man is in one of four ambulances cruising around the city. Track them down by following the red dots on the map. You'll want to ram each of the ambulances until you find the one that contains your guy. When you do, keep ramming and shooting it. When you inflict a good amount of damage, it will pull over.
Get out of your car and run to it, getting inside before backup arrives. Pilot the ambulance back to the yellow blip, and park in the red marker when you arrive. Head over to Tenpenny's C icon on the map in Prickle Pine. As always with this guy, you're a pawn in his cover-up scheme. This time he needs you to whack a guy who has some evidence against him surprise, surprise. Drive out to Aldea Malvada to track down the agent in question.
Follow the red blip on the mini-map. As you near the position, find the dirt trail that leads up into the bluffs. There are several agents here, and they are all protecting the guy with the evidence, but you don't really need to deal with them.
Simply sneak up to the left, keeping your distance as you skirt the complex. As you approach a pair of choppers, you should see the target he has a red arrow above him. Blast him and run to pick up the dossier make sure another agent doesn't grab it first. When you touch the dossier, the mission will end.
If you alert the guards too early, the guy will make a break for the chopper and get in. You'll have to chase him in the other chopper. Your chase will conclude after quite a long flight on a helipad. Land next to him and gun him down. If you love run n' gun missions, this is the one for you. You convince Ken to go to the abattoir to try to reason with the mob boss. Get in a vehicle and follow the blip over to the plant.
Get out of the ride and enter the building. Watch the cut scene in which as always the sheisse hits the fan. The gangsters think you're responsible for Johnny's condition, so they wage all-out war. Fire blocks the exits, so there's one way out You'll also have to keep Rosenberg alive. Kill all of the guys in the hallway quickly, and Rosie will run for a fire extinguisher. Run to the open doorway with the fire in it and hose down the goons beyond. Rosie will kill the fire. When he does, move into the room and take down the targets here, sure to use cover.
Make sure you keep an eye on the mini-map to see where the remaining dudes are. When you clean out the first room, move toward the next, using the windows that look into it as cover as you crouch and fire.
From this room, move through the right door into a room full of boxes. Watch out for thugs perched atop them, and spray them with bullets.
When all the targets go down, finish weaving through the boxes and exit at the door indicated by the yellow marker. Get in a car and drive Rosie back to the casino, following the yellow blip as always. Head back to the yellow icon at the Four Dragons Hotel inside the casino again and step on the red marker. This is not a mission, but a cutscene that moves the story along. You'll get a call from Ken, but from here, we recommend heading to the D icon on the map and knocking out Madd Dogg's mission.
After that, you can go back to Caligula's. Go to the D icon on the map-- in front of the Royal Casino on the strip-- and step on the red marker in order to trigger the introductory cut scene. In it, you'll see Madd Dogg about to jump to his death. You, as the cause of most of his problems, have to help him! When the cut scene concludes, you'll need to get to a pickup truck as quickly as possible and save the rapper. Follow the blue blip to the truck in the lot.
Drive it over to the marker under Madd Dogg. He will pace back and forth along the ledge and eventually jump. Using the gas and reverse, stay under him the whole time. Your aim is to catch him in the back of the truck, where the boxes are stacked. If you catch him correctly, he will survive but take a beating on the fall. You have to get him to the hospital without letting him take too much damage.
On your way over to the yellow blip on the map, don't let your car get dinged up, or MD will suffer more bodily harm Deliver him safely and the mission will end, earning you some respect. Return to Caligula's and head to the white icon to trigger another cut scene with Ken Rosenberg. He's being visited by a friend from Liberty City You're commissioned to stop the threat. Drive out to the yellow blip at the airport. Once you get there, head through the front gates and drive to the blue blip to steal an airplane.
Be sure to grab the Body Armor in the corner of the hangar before getting in the indicated plane. Taxi out to the runway and take off no need to retract landing gear, because that's impossible. Take off in the direction of the yellow blip and consult the mini-map to see if the plane you're tailing is above or below you if above, the marker will point up, and vice versa. Make sure you are at the same level when you approach the other aircraft. As you do, a corona will appear behind it.
Stay steady and fly into it to trigger a cut scene of you boarding the other plane. When you get aboard, the game will turn into a sort of Time Crisis mini-game. Duck behind cover using L2 and R2, shoot using L1. Four hitmen will pop up from behind the seats. Target and drop them as they appear. When they all go down, the pilot will emerge. Smoke him too and take over the plane.
Follow the yellow blip back to Las Venturas. Keep an eye on the big map to see you're aligned with the runway as you come in. Slow down well ahead of time and put your landing gear down. Go to the desert toward the "C" Tenpenny icon in Las Brujas.
Watch the cut scene After it concludes, you'll be in hot pursuit of Pulaski. Get in the nearby dune buggy and ram him as he's taking off. Follow him as he snakes out of the valley and onto the highway. Get behind him and ram him when possible, trying to cause damage to his vehicle. He will almost always make for a small town and drive around in there for awhile, giving you plenty of opportunity to smash and shoot him up.
His vehicle is resilient, though, so it will require a lot of damage. Sometimes, you can get him wedged in a corner.