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Also, at its peak, there were over 60 players on the MIT team, not 5 like we see in the movie. Basic strategy when dealer exposes both cards Surrender After Double Down. Mission to the Moon. Attack of the Influenza Birds. Rule variations used in online casinos are listed below:
Part 1 – Blackjack Basics
Do not place your chip s on top of the original wager — simply place it adjacent to your original bet. By doing this, you are signaling the dealer that you want to split your 2s, and play two hands. You must play out your first hand to your right before you are permitted to play out the second hand.
The factors that determine the basic strategy for pair splitting are the number of decks of cards and the playing rules. All pairs that should be split are highlighted with a blue background. There are three reasons why it makes sense to split rather than to employ an alternate strategy. You should always split when: A bold strategy means you are already the favorite to win money on a hand but if you split you'll win even more money.
For example, suppose you are dealt a against the dealer 6 upcard in a 6-deck, s17 game with NDAS, and resplits are allowed to a total of four hands. If your winning percentage decreases when you split how can you win more? Because you have to take into consideration that you doubled your bet when you split. The defensive pair splitting strategy of betting more to cut your losses is confusing to players. All they remember is getting a weak pair, splitting them because the "book says so," and then losing both bets.
What they don't realize is that even though you will lose money over the long haul when you split pairs defensively, you will lose even more money on the hand if you don't split. Take the example of a pair of 7s against a dealer 2 upcard in a six-deck game with h17 and resplitting to a maximum of four hands.
A 14, you'll agree, is a lousy hand. In other words, a 14 against a dealer's 2 is a losing hand if you stand, to the tune of 28 cents per hand. Suppose instead you split the 7s. You start each hand with a 7, which is slightly better then a 14 against the dealer 2. But you are still the underdog even with the 7. Yes, you are still going to lose money on the hand but which is better I think you'll agree that splitting is the better play because you cut your losses by 8 cents.
Offensive pair splitting is often the most satisfying kind of splitting because you turn a losing hand into a winning one. Suppose, in an s17, multi-deck, NDAS game, you are dealt a pair of 7s, the dealer has a 6 upcard and you stand. A 14 is not a very good hand even against the dealer 6 upcard.
By pair splitting, you start with a 7 on each hand, which is a stronger starting point than the By splitting offensively you've turned the 16 cents per hand deficit into 8 cents per split profit, which is an overall gain of 24 cents. Splitting pairs by the basic playing strategy allows you to turn potential losing hands into winners, earn more money on some splits, and lose less money on others.
One reason is the double down option. When a casino allows you the option to double down, it means you can double the amount of your initial bet in return for receiving one, and only one, draw card; i. Most casinos allow you to double down on any two-card hand hard or soft , whereas some restrict doubling to specific starting hands, e. The best player-friendly doubling rules are when you can double down on any two cards.
As a general rule, the hands you are most likely to double are hard 8, 9, 10, and 11, and the soft 13 A-2 through 18 A-7 hands. The following black and white tables and color-coded chart summarize the doubling down basic strategy for: The following color-coded chart summarizes the basic strategy for doubling hard hands including pairs and soft hands for a single-deck game. But the logic for doubling down is you get to go on the offensive at the best possible time - when the dealer has a relatively high probability of busting or when you have the edge over the dealer on the hand.
The reason you double on soft hands is not so much to outdraw the dealer as it is to get more money on the table when the dealer is vulnerable to busting shows a low-value upcard of If you follow the hard doubling down basic strategy, your gain will be about 1. What is ironic about doubling down is that with some hands, you will actually be reducing your chances of winning the hand because you get only one draw card.
If you doubled down and drew a 2 for an 11, the only way you could win the hand would be if the dealer busted. Nevertheless the right play is to double down because of the extra money you put into action. If you hit a two-card 9 you stand to win 59 percent of the hands and lose 41 percent of them. Some casinos allow players to double down on three or more cards. In other words, if you had a and drew a 3 for an 11, you could double down after the third card was drawn.
This rather rare option will give you another 0. Some casinos allow players to double down for less. But it is not wise to do so because you will maximize your gain only when you maximize the permissible amount of your double-down bet. Learning the doubling down basic strategy for hard and soft hands is important because it allows you to bet more when the likelihood of winning your hand is good.
As you will learn shortly Chapter 4 , the last decision you should make when choosing which strategy to implement with your hand is whether to hit or stand. The most frequent playing decision that you will have to make is whether to hit or stand.
The worst hands you will get at blackjack are hard 12 through In other words, virtually all these hands are overall losers for blackjack players.
You are going to be dealt one of these losers about 4 out of every 10 hands. You'll still take your lumps but you'll lose less money in the long run when you follow the basic strategy than if you depend upon divine intervention, or worse, play by the seat of your pants. The color-coded charts for single deck follow the black and white tables for single deck. In total, there are nine black and white tables and nine color-coded charts containing the summary for hitting and standing for all games and rules.
The hitting and standing strategies for hard and soft hands are not affected by DAS or NDAS, only whether the dealer stands on soft 17 s17 or hits soft 17 h Whether or not the dealer stands or hits on soft 17 will depend on the game in question. In most cases the rule will be printed on the table layout. The most common mistake made by novice blackjack players is to always stand on their stiff hands because they are afraid to bust.
Stiff means a hand that can be busted by a one-card draw; for example a hard 12 through Since you know the dealer must hit stiff hands by the rules of the game, you should: Consequently, the percentages are slightly better for: When the dealer shows a 7 through A upcard, there is a strong likelihood she will end up with a pat hand i.
As a general rule, you should never stand on soft 13 through soft You are either going to double down per the doubling strategy summarized in section 2. Your goal is to get to hard 17 or soft 18 to 21, with one exception. When you hold a soft 18 and the dealer shows a strong 9, 10, or A upcard, the percentages are slightly in your favor to hit rather than stand on soft Oftentimes your soft hand will be converted to a hard hand when you hit.
For example, suppose you have an A-4 and the dealer shows a 7 upcard. You hit and draw a Suppose you are dealt a 12 against a dealer 2 six-deck game with s The percentage of the hands that you stand to win or lose is: Using either strategy, you will be a net loser: So what would you rather do: If a casino offered you this proposition, would you take it? You can play blackjack for the rest of your life and they will give you an automatic 18 on every hand. Would you accept this proposition?
Most players would because they believe that an 18 surely has to be a winning hand in blackjack. This is what makes blackjack a tough and sometimes frustrating game. You play by the book yet you still end up with a losing session. It happens because for many of the hands you will be dealt, more so the hard hands discussed in this section, you are, unfortunately, the underdog no matter what playing strategy you invoke.
Next up are the insurance and even-money propositions. Should you make those bets? They are side bets introduced into the game of blackjack to give the perception to players that they will protect their hand against a dealer blackjack. Whenever the dealer shows an ace upcard, the dealer will ask the players if they want to make the insurance bet.
The amount that the casinos let you wager on the insurance bet is equal to one-half or less of the original bet. If the dealer ends up with a ten or picture card in the hole:. But here are the facts about the insurance bet. In a single deck of cards, we know that the ratio of non-tens to tens is 36 to Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in ; Morocco, who last competed in ; Peru, returning after ; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions Italy for the first time since , three-time runners-up and third placed in the Netherlands for the first time since , and four reigning continental champions: The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for Ghana and Ivory Coast , who had both made the previous three tournaments.
The draw was held on 1 December at Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia who were automatically assigned to position A1 and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4. However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group.
Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February , this was increased to Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad.
For players named in the player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May , except for those involved in the UEFA Champions League Final played on 26 May. On 29 March , FIFA released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees.
VAR had a significant impact in several games. Russia proposed the following host cities: The bid evaluation report stated: Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed. In October , Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.
The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Sepp Blatter stated in July that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa , where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".
They were satisfied with the progress. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium — the two largest stadiums in Russia — were used most, both hosting seven matches.
Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of match each. Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games. Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament.
Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems. Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre Accor Hotels and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk Starwood Hotels as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities.
The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals. Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.
The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.
The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July. The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia.
Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo walked out with a child wearing a Russia shirt. English pop singer Robbie Williams then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation. Dancers were also present. Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H.
Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round. For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards.
Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.
If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament.
Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament. The award was sponsored by Hyundai.
FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.
Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.
The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf.
The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.
A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".
The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage. The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.
The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football,    and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.
Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations.
Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups. In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.
The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility". At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.
Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true.
A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.
Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.
Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day. Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.